Metopen: Pengenalan Awal Metodologi Penelitian

We should do inductive method to find a new topic in a thesis. It can be started from an exploration something, if we are critical “peka” we will find a phenomenon why something happened, after that link the issues to the theory. Don’t start a reasearch from a topic / title first but start it from problem or exploration (interesting phenomena/ sesuatu yang tidak lazim) sehingga layak untuk di angkat (why). Tidak lazim disini bisa yang baik atau yang jelek yang berbeda dari keadaan umum. To determine it is good or bad are based on the definition of the theory and criteria or indikator. The definition is the “red yarn” from the background until discussion. Gunakan sebuah atau beberapa definisi yang sama sebagai acaun pada penelitian itu sebagai dasar berpijak dan jangan gunakan definisi lain yang bertolak belakang.

The answer of the problem is data of research. Then use a method to collect a data for instance questionnaires, interview, documentation, so on. If we don’t find a theory to support our research we can use grand theory to cover our finding. And the finding will be a grounded theory (membangun theory). 

Kinds of research

There are two kinds of research, qualitative and quantitive research

Qualitative research (inductive perspective) Khusus ke umum, In this research can be started from data (specific) then make a conclusion (general). It will be produce theory (grounded theory) from certain phenomenon author version (ala reseacher tersebut) because the researcher is the instument of the research. Then the result of research can be transfered to other place.

Quantitative research (deductive perspective) It consist of 
  • Premise mayor : grand theory
  • Premise minor : the cases / problem
  • Conclusion (diduga / praduga) is also called as hypothesis.
  • After determine the hypothesis then collect data to prove the the hypothesis (it is called inductive) or kajian lapangan

Different qualitative research and quantitative research

Qualitative research 
  • The qualitative research, the researcher must categorize the data, then analyse the data
  • The researcher is the research instrument (main instrument), then added other instrument in collecting data 
  • Data showed / explained in diskriptive or narrative explantion
  • Use certain technique in collecting data
  • Choose / select the question in order to foks on the research field (kajian)
  • Has single varibale (variable tunggal) dan it is revealed in the research question
  • Research conclusion is a new theory
  • The research explore (mengamati) a phenomenon to obtain data
Quantitative Research
  • Bersifat ferivikasi / justifikasi teori, apakah teori tersebut masih berlaku / atau ketika kita mengahadapi sebuah keragu-raguan dan berusaha untuk membuktikanya dengan teori tersebut
  • Peneliti menyusun kerangka berfikir terlebih dahulu, lalu menghubungkanya dengan teori dan akhirnya membuat sebuah hypothesis
  • Paradigma penalaran deduktive
  • Data-data diperoleh dari lapangan, kemudian dianalisis untuk menguji hypotehsis tadi (maka dinamakan penalaran tahap induktif)
  • Penalaran deduktif dan induktid dalam quantitative digunakan secara bertahap
  • Quantitavive research usually consist of two variable or more.
  • To obtain data it need instrumen such as: angka diolah dengan statistik, analysis hubungan dengan korelarasi, dan melakukan uji T-tes dan anova.

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