Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning

“Educational psychology is a discipline bridging two fields, education and psychology, that is primarily interested in the application of psychological methods to the study and practice of teaching and learning” (Elliott, et al., 2000: 2). “Educational psychology is the application of psychology and psychological methods to the study of development, learning, motivation, instruction, assessment, and related issues that influence the interaction of teaching and learning” (Elliott, et al., 2000: 2). Definisi ini muncul dikarenakan memang besarnya pengaruh potensi psychology pendidikan pada learning proses.
Psikologi pendidikan
Bilingual education programs designed to help students who have problems with the language of the school. (Elliott, et al., 2000: 117). ESL program usually has students removed from class and given special English instruction. The intent is to have these students acquire enough English to allow them to learn in their regular classes that are taught in English. (Elliott, et al., 2000: 117).With bilingual technique, students are taught partly in English and partly in their native language. The objective here is to help student learn English subject matter instruction in their own language and in English. Thus, they acquire subject matter knowledge simultaneously with English. (Elliott, et al., 2000: 117)

Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses us to action, pushes us in particular directions and keeps us engaged in certain activities. (Elliott, et al., 2000: 332). Then, what affect student motivations (apakah yang mempengaruhi motivasi siswa)

Kecemasan/ Anxiety
There are numerous sources of anxiety: teacher, examinations, peers, social relations, achievement setting, that girls think of boys, what boys think of girls, like or dislike of subjects, and distance from home for younger students. Anxiety will affect student performance. Anxiety can affect students classroom performance, especially their test taking.

High anxiety has a negative effect on performance. (Elliott, et al., 2000: 345). Test anxiety has been used for well over four decades to describe the behavior and emotions of students who find preparing for and taking test stressful. Sarason’s (1980) summary of the main characteristics of test anxiety includes the following: a, the test situation is seen as difficult, challenging, and threatening, b. students see themselves as ineffective or inadequacy, d. self-deprecatory preoccupations are strong and interfere with task-relevant cognitive activity and, e. students expect and anticipate failure and loss of regard by others. (Elliott, et al., 2000: 346)

In a comprehensive meta-analytic study of test anxiety research, Hembree (1980) concluded the following majors points.
  • Test anxiety and academic performance are significantly inversely related at grade 3 and above.
  • Test anxiety occurs in students from all sociocultural groups in our society
  • Female exhibit more test anxiety than males, but as a group females are more likely to admit and self-report test anxiety.
  • Average students, as measured by standardized tests, experience higher levels of test anxiety compared with both higher and lower ability students.
  • High test-anxious students perform better under conditions that include low-stress instructions, provisions for memory supports, performance incentives, and minimal classroom distractions.
  • Worry component of test anxiety (for example, negative self-talk and cognitive) appear to be stronger than emotional components (for example, heartbeat, sweaty palms, and upset stomach)
  • Test anxiety is directly related to fear of negative evaluation, dislike of test cognitive self-preoccupation, and less effective study skills.
  • High test-anxious students hold themselves in lower esteem than do low test anxious students.
  • Finally, high test-anxious students spend more time than low test-students attending to task-irrelevant behavior such as negative self-statements. Attention towards physical discomfort, and watching others in the classroom, and as a result, their performance suffers. (Elliott, et al., 2000: 347) 
Classroom activities
Doyle (1986) describe activities as relatively short block of classroom time (about ten to twenty minutes) during which students are arranged and taught in a particular way. For example. Most activities involve seatwork, presentation etc.
(kindergarten to grade 6)
  • Reading circle
  • Seatwork
  • One-way presentation
  • Two-way presentation
  • Use of media
  • Silent reading
  • Constructions
  • Games
  • Play
  • Transitions
  • Housekeeping (Elliott, et al., 2000: 385)
Rangkuman/ ringkasan/ summary tentang Psikologi Pendidikan, Rangkuman ini terkait dengan penelitian pendidikan di dalam kelas. Sebenarnya buku ini sangat tebal, akan tetapi saya merangkum beberapa point yang saya butuhkan yaitu pengeritan pendidikan dan anxiety in the classroom di dalam kelas.

Reference: Elliott, Stephen N., Thomas R. Kratochwill, Joan Littlefield Cook and John. Travers. (2000). Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, Third Edition. United States: The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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