Pengertian Penguasaan Bahasa Pertama

Bahasa pertama (first language) merupakan bahasa pertama yang dikuasia oleh anak, Bahasa pertama juga dikenal dengan bahasa Ibu (mother tongue). Penguasaan bahasa pertama diperoleh secara tidak sadar (unconscious acquisition). Diasumsikan bahwa child under 5 year has intuition system to construct 1st language before he be able to such as sentences, pronoun, question usage and syntax, and phonology. Berikut ini sejumlah teori tentang fist language acquisition

1. Language acquisition for child

  • Child cannot store all word and sentences in a big dictionary
  • He learn construct a new sentences
  • Learn sentences which never be hear before
  • Child have to construct grammatical language alone creatively
  • There no teach who teach language grammatical
  • Child learn language un awareness

2. Step of language acquisition (Fromkin, 1990)

  • Penguasaan bahasa kompetisi language antara anak dan orang dewasa hampir sama
  • Tahapan per linguistic and linguistik
  • Crying, rengekan, sound are not language acquisition. Its are reaction of stimulus-controlled
  • Human language appear without stimulus-controlled (rangsangan dari luar)
  • All baby product some sound including auditory child (5-7 year)
  • They can’t feel audiotif stimulus
  • Child not enjoy paper, they can feel their environment.

3. 1st language acquisition theory

  • Child imitate adult language (imitative theory)
  • (Reinforcement theory) child have to product correct sentences without formal learning when they produce positive and negative reinforcement.

4. Mistake and rule

  • Inflectional errors (kesalahan infleksi). Child cannot construct correct sentences because he can’t different the grammatical rule
  • Over generalisasi semantic (semantic over generalization). Child have general perspective an one object.
  • Penguasaan aturan, fonologi, morphology, and syntax. Development of acquisition rule will child begin to determine consonan, repetition of plural words, because child don’t syntactic categories.

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